Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other venereal diseases are infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal sex.Examples are Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes simplex. The common STDs are gonorrhea and Chlamydia, which are most prominent female gender with considerable variations across age groups and race. Most STDs do not form symptoms and signs and therefore predisposes the individuals to spreading before it’s realized, making strategies to combat the diseases difficult. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases amongst people differs considerably across gender and race. Research shows the infection rates are different based on varied different factors including culture, the community surroundings and even individual based factors like age and behavior. Sexually transmitted diseases are normally associated with reckless drug and substance abuse.

Sexually transmitted infections are continuing to be a major public health problem amongst the women and young youth who are disproportionately at risk of the infection. Research done shows that high rates of infections amongst the blacks as compared to the lower risk exposure to whites. Such variations may pose challenges in coming up with an integrated approach to combating and fighting the diseases. Both gender and race have multiple correlates that may account for the differences, including cultural influences, experience of sexual exposure, socioeconomic status, education, poor family environment and access to community resources. Therefore, obtaining an accurate understanding of the nature of STD infection among people requires accounting for race and gender (Schmid-Hempel, 2011).

In addition to race and gender, various individual-level factors such as age, criminal involvement, drug and substance abuse have shown consistent indicators to STD predisposition. However, such relationships have shown inconsistent across gender and hence posing difficulty in establishing integrated measures and strategies to combat the malady. In particular, people who indulge in drug and substance abuse are more likely to test STD positive because their mental judgment is impaired and therefore resulting in risky and uncontrolled sexual activities. The young adolescents suffer a major blow and hence exposed to infection because they are considered to be sexually active among the population. The female gender are considered to mature faster than boys and hence earlier exposed.

It is increasingly paramount to consider the contribution of the community level factors in influencing diseases amongst various populations. Neighborhoods characterized by high levels of poverty, economic inequality, and less employments are less able to provide the required resources and hence fall into many social ills. Communities marked by variation in ethnic and racial differences have less social cohesion and hence minimal mechanisms to develop social control to such influences due to language and cultural barriers. The aforementioned factors normally tend to undermine social cohesion within the community and hence discourages mitigation such public health issues (Heiligenberg et. al, 2012).

The understanding of how the above factors influence the infection rates of STDs is very important so as to develop mitigation measures. For instance, proper education programs targeting the young adults on the negative effects of drug abuse is very important to fighting the scourge. Gender -specific programs targeting sexual health and the well-being of the affected group is essential. Thus, adapting intervention and prevention strategies to meet the social, and ecological and developmental, needs of each particular subgroup of people at risk for STD infections is the most effective and efficient intervention strategy. Taking a socio-ecological approach to the understanding, and more significantly preventing STD infection among the selective age clusters will not only improve the lives of the individuals involved, but will also improve the health and well-being of the community as a whole.

Therefore studying how the various factors influence susceptibility to STD infections helps in developing educative and health programs that target the specific group leading to a more healthy community (Johnson, 2011).


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