Re-wilding refers to restoring the ecosystems or environment immensely to the natural state that it was before human interference with the environment. Re-wilding can be done by introducing flora and fauna to the ecosystem that they were in initially or to a similar habitat. Human activities like hunting and habitat destruction over the past centuries have led to the wiping out of some of the fauna from their natural habitat. Most of these animals wiped out from the wild have become endangered. Re-wilding became an effort by various authorities and governments in the world to re-introduce the fauna to the natural habitat they once lived in or similar habitat.

Josh Donlan has supported the Pleistocene re-wilding as an optimistic agenda in North America’s conservation efforts of the 21st century. Pleistocene re-wilding is the re-establishment of fauna that existed 13,000-11,000 years ago by introducing similar species to replace the extinct species. Rubenstein supports the idea of conserving and sustaining the native ecosystems together with the remaining organisms. However, Rubenstein does not support the Pleistocene agenda arguing that North America cannot return to the exact ecosystem that was there 13,000-11,000 years ago, the Pleistocene habitat is uncertain for their practical introduction, and that the re-wilding would damage the current ecosystem and biodiversity in North America( Easton, 2011).

Human beings do not have the moral responsibility to rekindle the ecosystem that human ancestors destroyed 13,000 years ago. The communities in the ecosystem are also not ecologically similar to those that existed in the Pleistocene. It is therefore not possible to return North America to the ecosystem of Pleistocene era, and as Rubenstein et al. stated, Pleistocene habitat is uncertain and this may endanger the current ecosystem.

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