In an organization, every employee is different and has different working style based on their personality type. Thus to attain workplace efficiency and harmony, it is important for managers and subordinates to understand the style in which others operate. Additionally, if a manager wants to motivate his subordinates to work effectively and efficiently, he must acquaint himself with the different personality types and their motivational factors.
Personality is the set of tendencies and characteristics that determine the differences and commonalities in the psychological behavioral patterns of feeling, thought, and action of people (Dowling, Welch, Festing, Engle, 2008). There are two types of personalities; type A and type B. Type A are restless, impatient, and have a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Managers with this profile tend to be obsessive, hard-driving, detail oriented, and have high performance standards. Type B are more easy going, relaxed about time pressure, less competitive, and more philosophical in nature. Managers tend to exert more effort in meeting deadlines and do not succumb to pressure.
Management and leadership style depends largely on the personality characteristics and the emotional intelligence of the decision maker. Emotional intelligence is the ability to comprehend and manage own emotions, and those of the people around (Scott-Ladd & Chan, 2004). High emotional intelligence allows managers to know their feelings, the meaning of those emotions, and how they can affect the people around them. It is important for managers to understand their strengths and limitations, read employees and help improve organizational relationships and make leadership easier (Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, & Buckley, 2003).
Further, having high emotional intelligence helps in motivation, therefore, self-motivated leaders work towards achieving their goals. Moreover, leaders become self-regulating and avoid instances of verbal attacks, stereotyping employees, and making rush decisions. Leaders who are self-regulating show commitment to personal accountability (Scott-Ladd & Chan, 2004). Consequently, empathy is characteristic of leaders with high emotional intelligence. This enables managers to put themselves in the situation of their subordinates and help develop them on their team, give constructive feedback, and challenge those who are acting unfairly.
Personality assessments show an individual’s emotional intelligence, leadership, and decision making capabilities which can be applied to contribute to the effectiveness of their role in an organization (Dowling et al., 2008). Managers who score well in emotional intelligence tend to have high social skills and listen to their colleagues and employees (Prati et al., 2003). They also are good at managing change and resolving conflicts amicably and do not sit back and watch as employees perform their tasks.
Managers make decision depending on whether they are introverts or extroverts. Introverts take time to think and clarify ideas before they start applying them while extroverts talk through their ideas as a way of clarifying the ideas (Scott-Ladd & Chan, 2004). Moreover, introverts get concerned with their own ideas and concepts where extroverts would consider asking for feedback about the viability of their ideas. Knowing ones personality would be important to confront issues in an organization. It would help an individual to use logic, emotions, and analysis during problem solving.
People tend to be irrational when making decisions thus managers should be aware of their biases and how those biases can affect an organization (Dowling, 2008). These biases may be action-oriented; people feel pressure to take action, are optimistic about the future, and dismiss the possibility of a negative event. They also have overconfidence in their ability to influence events. Besides, people get affected by self-interest bias, whereby they employ silo thinking and get motivated by self-interests. Pattern recognition also affects decision-making with individuals paying more attention to highly memorable events with confirmation bias. Moreover, people in an organization strive to reach a consensus in a group, tend to support that group in social harmony bias.
Great decision-making requires learning how to synthesize and filter the voluminous information available. It is important to consider gut instincts as they provide a check against biases in decision-making process. Further, decisions should not be made based on raw data as it can be inconclusive (Robbins, & Judge, 2013). Information used in decision-making should be credible and from a reliable source. This enables decision makers to perform a situation analysis. Decisions should be subjected to public scrutiny and a cost-benefit analysis done to ascertain whether the decisions are viable. Additionally, the risk-reward ratio should be assessed and when the decision is made a back-up plan should be available (Robbins, & Judge, 2013).