Parent Resources: Strategies for Improving articulation in home setting (Preschoolers)
|No||Study||Participants||Method of Evaluation||Findings||Remarks|
Broomfield, J. & Dodd, B. (2011)
|730 children aged between 4 and 16 years referred to the Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Service of Middlesbrough Primary Care Trust were randomized.||Randomized control trial||The group under the intervention reported improvement in speech and language compared to no treatment at all.||The researchers are affiliated to
Speech Therapy 4 Kids, UK City University who support speech therapy as an effective intervention for speech problems in children.
Smith-Lock, K. M., Leitao, S., Lambert, L., & Nickels, L. (2013)
|Thirty four (34), 5 year old children attending a specialized school specific for children with language impairment. 19 children received treatment for expressive grammar, 15 children received control||Randomized control trial||The group that received grammar treatment reported significant performance in grammar while the children in the control group did not report improved grammatical performance pre and post treatment.||The group of researchers is affiliated to different education institutions and is all supporters of grammar programmes to improve speech development in young children.|
Netelenbos, N., Gibb, R., Li, F. & Gonzalez, C. (2018).
|Thirty three (33) children aged between 4 to 6 years.||Participants were evaluated based on their performance in the speech task. Evaluations were done pre and post the BRIEF questionnaire.||The researchers found out that children who had better executive function (EF) (based on the parental report of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) inventory) had stronger speech production abilities while pronouncing “s” and “sh” sounds. The researchers also found out that the Global Executive Composite (GEC) of EF predicts speech sound proficiency and speech sound proficiency predicted GEC.||Two of the researchers are affiliated to The Brain in Action Laboratory, University of Lethbridge while the other two are affiliated to other departments at the same University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge Canada.|
Bispo, N., Whitaker, M., Aferri, H., Neves, J., Dutka, J. & Pegoraro-Krook, M. (2011).
|One (1) 6 year old child with a history of unilateral cleft lip and palate and who had signs of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after primary palatal surgery. The child has had several surgeries to treat the cleft lip when she was 6 months of age, 9 months of age and at 2 years 3 months of age. Before the speech therapy, the child had hypernasal speech and used compensatory articulations which compromised speech intelligibility.||Case study||The researchers in the study showed that a pharyngeal obturator can be effective in being used as a temporary, conservative, and easily reversible treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). The same treatment could be effective in postponing and optimizing future surgical treatment for the condition. Children with speech disorders associated with VPI can be effectively treated with behavioral speech therapy that is combined with a prosthetic approach as seen in the case study.||All the researchers in the study are speech and language specialists in different departments in the University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil, hence their interest in correcting speech problems in young patients.|
Bessas, A. & Trimmis, A. (2018)
|Four pre-school children that had functional articulation disorders were taken through a three month traditional intervention program to assess its impact on speech sounds. Four children were in the control group.||Evaluation was done by assessing the speech sounds in the participants pre and post the therapy. The evaluation was done using Phonetic and Phonological Development Test (PPDT) of the Panhellenic Association of Logopedics.||The researchers found out that the traditional therapeutic approach was effective in improving speech and articulation among the preschoolers. In addition, the researchers found out that traditional therapeutic approach led to improvement in phoneme accuracy.||Both researchers are affiliated to the Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Department of Speech Language Therapy. Hence, their credibility in conducting the study.|
Wertzner, H., Pagan-Neves, L., Alves, R., & Barrozo, T. (2013)
|72 participants aged 5 to 7 years were divided into four groups that were based on the presence of speech sound disorder and age.||Evaluation was done by measuring the oral diadochokinesia skills whereby participants would repeat the sequences ‘pa’, ‘ta’, ‘ka’ and ‘pataka’||The researchers found out that there was a statistical difference between the two genders but this did not impact the number of sequences per second produced. There was also a correlation between age and the number of sequences per second. Similar results were also obtained for oral diadochokinesia measured manually and by Motor Speech Profile (MSP).||All the researchers are affiliated to the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo – USP – São Paulo (SP), Brazil.|
Byun, T. M. & Hitchcock, E. R. (2012)
|11 children aged 4 to 6 years were taken through 10 weeks of individual treatment that was divided into 4 to 6 weeks of traditional treatment that was followed by 4 to 6 weeks of biofeedback treatment.||Evaluation was done by tracking the /r/ productions before and after treatment.||The study found out that there was no difference in how the children produced the /r/ sounds before and after the traditional treatment. However, the /r/ sounds produced after the biofeedback treatment improved. Eight of the children reported measurable gains in how they produced the /r/ sound after the biofeedback treatment.||The key researcher is affiliated to the Montclair State University, NJ, USA and both of the researchers are key supporters of spectral biofeedback approaches in improving articulation at home.|
Tokia, E. & Pangeb, J. (2010)
|12 children aged between 5.0 and 6.6 years with an articulation disorder and problems in articulating sounds /r/ or /s/ participated in the study. 6 participants formed the control group where they did not have internet at home while the intervention group had internet at home for the e-learning activities.||The participants were randomly selected and evaluation done based on this method.||The study found out that there was 7% increase in student performance when using the e-learning speech articulation activities. The researchers also found out that the learning outcomes for the learners with the integrated e-learning activities of language articulation were above the learning outcomes of children with no internet at home.||While Toki is affiliated to the Department of Early Childhood Education, School of Education, University of
Ioannina, Ioannina, Pangeb is affiliated to the Department of Speech and Language Therapy, TEI of Epirus, Ioannina, Greece. Hence, their interest in conducting the study on articulation problems.