Life Insurance: BUS DB2 Reply 2

Life insurance is a contract between the insured and the insurance company, where the latter promises to pay a lump-sum payment, otherwise known as a death benefit to the beneficiaries in the event the insured dies in exchange for a premium (Steuer, 2011). However, terminal or critical illness may prompt payment depending on the contractual terms. Moreover, life insurance is chosen depending on the needs and goals of the insured. Permanent insurance, for instance universal, limited pay, endowment and whole life provide coverage for lifetime while term life insurance provides protection for a specified period of time.

Term life insurance is less expensive than permanent life insurance and its premiums are fixed, just like whole life insurance, as opposed to universal life insurance whose premiums are flexible (Steuer, 2011). While permanent life insurance helps one build equity, term life insurance does not. Moreover, term life insurance assists in meeting the need of income replacement in a lump-sum. Conversely, universal life insurance assists in wealth transfer, protection of income with some terms focusing on tax-deferred wealth accumulation.

Hong and Rios-Rull (2012) note that life insurance, unlike other forms of financial instruments, is favorably treated in terms of tax. The death benefits are usually income-tax-free to the beneficiary. Moreover, policy loans and cash value withdrawals of up to the total premiums paid are income-tax-free. Moreover, many life insurance policies are flexible in terms of policy-holder need adjustment. However, in life insurance, cash surrender values are less than the premiums paid in the first years and the insured may fail to recover the premiums paid in case of a policy surrender. Life insurance does not benefit the insured directly and the insured has to forgo some current expenditure to pay for premiums. The positioning and purchase of life insurance may be complex, particularly in estate planning insurance. 

 

Importance of Having Life Insurance: BUS DB2 Reply 1

Life insurance acts as security to provide funds at death for funeral and burial expenses, offer an income to the beneficiaries, provide a means for tax-efficient savings as well as leave a legacy for dependents. Life insurance is either offered by the employer or can be purchased separately. It assists to mitigate the financial burden of one’s dependents in the event of their death, pay one’s estate taxes, and replace the insured’s income with non-taxable death benefit (Cummins, 2002). Further, life insurance is divided into term life, whole life, and universal life insurance.

Steuer (2011) states that the importance of life insurance is the provision of a substantial lump-sum as a replacement for lost income in the event the insured dies. Moreover, it provides the desired death benefits at a lower current cost, in this case term life. Further, life insurance protects the lifestyle of one’s spouse in case they have died. It also covers a mortgage or other loan as well as providing the insured’s beneficiaries with liquidity to cater for final taxes, business taxes, settlement costs, and capital gains. Life insurance also acts as a source of financing sabbaticals, retirement or a business opportunity. 

Although life insurance is laden with benefits, many Christians opt to go without it since they see that as a lack of faith in God and love for money. However, the Holy Bible advises Christians to prepare for the future and one way of doing that is by taking an insurance cover. It further instructs people to provide for their dependents, particularly those in one’s own house (1 Timothy 5:8, KJV).

Technologies and capabilities have helped shape life insurance in terms of risk management. This has made it easier for data collection and storage as well as modelling, analysis, monitoring, control and communication of risk (Cummins, 2002). 

 

Effective Inventory Management

Inventory management is the process of keeping an efficient and a constant flow of units in and out of an existing inventory. Effective inventory management, thus entails having knowledge of what is on hand, where to be applied, and how much finished product will result from it, thus avoiding unnecessary investment (Leeman, 2010).

ABC analysis is an inventory categorization method used in supply chain, whereby inventory is divided into three categories, A, B and C. A-items have the highest annual consumption value, C-items have the lowest consumption value, while B-items have medium consumption value. By classifying the items, the supply manager can identify the items with the highest annual consumption value and isolate them from the trivial many (Leeman, 2010).

A pen ink company records the annual number of times a batch is ordered by customers, transferred, or utilized in the assembly. An order may be composed of 1 or more units. Green ink had 3 orders totaling 4580 units at an annual cost of $19,000, red ink had 9 orders for 800 units at a total cost of $900, and blue ink 54 orders for 120 units at a cost of $670.

The ordering policy for the company should involve more blue ink to meet customer demand by availing the ink to a level customers expect to be always in supply. This is because it has the lowest order quantity and lowest total cost of goods all year long. However, green ink should be availed only when customers specifically order for it. Green ink had the greatest total quantity ordered and cost of goods sold on a yearly basis, but received only 3 orders in this particular year thus maintenance of a large quantity of it may lead to a negative inventory turnover impact. Red ink should be maintained at moderate ordering.

 

Law of Contracts

A contract is a promise that the law will enforce. It is made when an offer made by one party is accepted by the other party (Blum, 2007). An offer is a definite promise to be bound, as long as the terms of the offer are accepted, for instance Jerry made an offer to Ken to stay with Charter, which Ken accepted. A contract can either be in writing or oral for it to be enforceable.

The Statute of Frauds outlines the contracts that must be both written and signed. Blum (2007) states that these include; contracts in consideration or marriage, contracts for the transfer of an interest in land, contracts which cannot be done within one year. Other contracts are; contracts for the sale of goods of $5,000 and above, surety contracts, and contracts by the will executor for payment of a debt of the estate with their own money. 

The Statute of Frauds requires that for the agreement to be valid and binding, it must be in writing and have the signature of both parties (Blum, 2007). Therefore, Ken’s employment contract does not fall under the Statute of Frauds because it lacks such elements. 

However, under the Exceptions of the Statute of Frauds, Ken had partially performed on the agreement (Blum, 2007). This saves an oral agreed from being invalidated under the Statute of Frauds thus providing solid proof that Jerry and Ken had intended for an oral agreement to be enforceable and with agreed upon terms that Ken should reject the offer from the rival company and will not be fired. This makes the employment contract to fall under the Statute of Frauds thus Ken can sue for damages.

Writing on the back of a receipt “10% for life” would not satisfy the Statute of Frauds as that amounts to a technicality. Although that is written, it is not signed hence it would require both Jerry and Ken to sign so that the contract can be enforceable and valid under the Statute of Frauds.

Diseases of the Circulatory and Genitourinary Systems

Blood pressure is the force of blood through the arteries as the heart beats. That pressure can go past the normal range of 120/80 mmHg leading to high blood pressure or hypertension due to a buildup of fatty matter or plaque leading to narrowed arteries. The narrow arteries decrease the blood flow into the heart muscles. Hypertension increases the risk of heart disease because hypertension exerts added force against the artery walls. Moreover, damaged arteries fail to supply enough oxygen into the vital organs, such as the kidneys and brain, hence stroke and kidney diseases.

There exists a difference in coding of the two conditions. This happens to distinguish between the causes of the conditions for proper diagnosis. ICD-10-CM gives one specific code I10 for benign and malignant hypertension thus does not distinguish between them (National Center for Health Statistics, NCHS, 2013). However, a cause and effect relationship between heart disease and hypertension cannot be assumed. In an event the diagnostic statement mentions both conditions without an indication of a causal relationship between the two, then separate codes are assigned. Moreover, if hypertensive heart disease due to hypertension is documented, then an additional code is used to identify the type of heart failure. I11.0 Hypertensive heart disease with heart failure while I11.9 is used for Hypertensive heart disease without heart failure (NCHS, 2013).

In documenting a hypertensive chronic kidney disease, a combination code is reported as appropriate and a cause and effect relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is assumed. I12 is used for hypertensive chronic kidney disease with stage 5 chronic kidney disease or end stage kidney disease. An additional code is used in the identification of heart failure and another additional code for identifying the stage of chronic kidney disease (NCHS, 2013). An understanding of the disease process and clinical differences are crucial in coding heart failure and disease correctly.

 

 

Diseases and Conditions of the Digestive and Respiratory System

The digestive system is a series of organs tasked with converting food into essential nutrients for absorption into the body as well as elimination. However, the digestive system can become affected leading to life-threatening situations. Some digestive system diseases include; colon cancer, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome and acute appendicitis.

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the inner lining of the vermiform appendix that eventually spreads to the other parts of the appendix. The sign and symptoms of acute appendicitis are; loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting after onset of abdominal pain, dull abdominal pain and swelling, diarrhea with gas and constipation, fever, and inability to pass wind (LaMone et al., 2013). Other signs include painful urination and sharp pain in the upper and lower abdomen. 

Acute appendicitis can be hard to diagnose unless the patient has the typical symptoms, which in most cases are only exhibited by about half of all cases. Moreover, some people’s appendix may be placed in a slightly different part of the body. In diagnosing the disease, pressure is applied to the appendix area to determine whether the pain gets worse (LaMone et al., 2013). If this diagnosis turns positive, then the patient is referred for treatment.

Other tests include a rectal test and blood test to check for any signs of the infection; urine test is also done to ascertain that it is not another infection, such as a bladder infection. Moreover, an ultrasound scan or a computerized tomography scan is performed to check whether the appendix is swollen (LaMone et al., 2013). For women, a pregnancy test is carried out. Acute appendicitis is treated by appendix removal called appendectomy. It becomes life threatening if the appendix bursts, and thus should be surgically removed before it happens. When an appendix has raptured, one becomes prone to more complications, decelerated recovery or death. 

 

Media Bias

Media is a product that offers information to the general public, for instance television, the internet, newspapers, and radio, thus having an overwhelming influence on the public opinion. The media play an important role in government for it is tasked with reporting government activities to the public hence exposing any corrupt behavior. Moreover, any topic of focus greatly impacts the issues the public cares about.

However, the American media has been accused of political bias in that it leans more to the left. A 2012 study by the Pew Research Center showed that 77 percent of Americans feel that the media tends to favor one side (Groeling, 2013). The left-leaning media houses are said to have balanced their bias by reporting more favorable to conservatives. By comparing news stories with congressional speeches, one realizes how bias a media outlet is. A media outlet could treat two opposing sides equally, but still be biased due to the issues it selects (Perazzo, 2008).

Nevertheless, the media is said to stand on the middle ground during presidential debates since that is where the advertising money and the people are. However, media landscape has been altered by the rise of internet, which has paved way for more partisan media outlets (Groeling, 2013). Since the media is seen as bias, more watchdog groups have been formed to check reporters’ work. These groups have been instrumental in highlighting the media failings.

Even though people expect most media to be left-leaning, the degree varies since journalists’ role is to present both sides of the issue. Journalists are also expected to exercise a more balanced citation practice however their own ideologies. In spite of the people’s feeling that news outlets are often inaccurate, they show trust in information from such news outlets as opposed to state and federal government agencies.

Transportation Economics

Transportation economics has been influenced by certain developments, such as deregulation of the transportation industry giving room for carriers and shippers for the best mutually beneficial rates and service packages reducing the need for inventory thus lowering the holding cost of commodities. Moreover, there have been developments in the increase in demand for quality service, and business globalization. Transportation economics is thus the study of the uses of scarce productive resources to produce and distribute transportation services for society’s consumption (Sinha & Labi, 2007).

Transportation economics, being a branch of applied micro-economics is associated with; governmental interventionist policies and regulations in transportation, the transportation facility consumption is unique in space and time, and the technological variations among different modes and economies of scale (Sinha & Labi, 2007). It addresses the transportation services demand, demand and supply elasticity, the supply of transportation facilities, transportation cost analysis and its price mechanisms.  

The visual experience is a crucial element of any project and its impact on the environment. The functionality of a facility is closely linked to a project looks and fits into the natural or built environment. The visual quality of a project is a basic concept in its planning and analysis and if the public perceives it negatively, it may become prone to opposition (Wathern, 2013). Therefore the visual effects of a project’s alteration should be analyzed during its development in addition to its temporary visual impacts.

A visual impact assessment on highway projects would be necessary in guiding the people who review the coverage of environmental and highways assessment impacts. A highway project, such as a bridge cable replacement would be subject to a visual impact assessment. If the cables of a bridge is replaced, it means that the existing ones has to be brought down, thus denying the residents and visitors of their visual resource. The existing bridge’s architecture, which residents and visitors consider a significant visual resource needs high sensitivity levels to projects that may alter its appearance.

However, a replacement of the cables with new ones that are of the same scale, size, color and design would result in no substantially adverse impact on the visual resource. Since the replacement is proposed for the same location as the existing bridge, then all the other visual components within the bridge area, such as the beautiful scenery and visual character of the cables would not be subject to substantial change. After the change, the cables would remain just as they were. Moreover, the project would include installation of CCTV cameras and lighting to mitigate the homicides and accidents witnesses in the past.

The bridge provides services to both automobiles and pedestrians crossing to the other side of the river to other towns. Repairs to the bridge cables are crucial to improving its safety to users as well as improving its deteriorating condition shown by the loosening of the cables. Inspection reports have shown that the bridge is in poor conditions with a sufficiency rating of 27 thus qualifying for replacement.

After a design preview, an alternative was proposed where the colors would be changed. However, installation of CCTV cameras and extra lighting to increase the security of the area were also added to the design. The renovation would last for 8 months, starting from March 2015 and ending by November 2015. Traffic officers would control the flow of vehicles and passenger during the construction period. The project would also be open for review by the federal and state environmental requirements (Wathern, 2013).

Moreover, the project renovation would keep into account the local plans and policies, such as the land use policies relating to urban design. The views that are prone to alteration by the project would be described according to their view character and quality, viewer group and its sensitivity, the visual resources available and duration of views. The assessment would be subject to viewers’ values and notions about quality settings.

The effects on the landscape and existing views would be evaluated based on character consistency whereby introduction of new visual elements would result into a negative visual impact on the project. Further, an obstruction of views would happen if key views are obstructed. The view would thus ensure that; either the visual elements are present or the view quality is high.

The impacts expected from the project include; construction, operational, security, and cumulative impacts. The construction impacts are partial closure of the motorway and erection of false-work. The security impacts would be as a result of the cameras and additional lighting. However, the existing visual quality from the area would range from medium to high (Wathern, 2013). 

The proposed replacement of the cables with new ones that are of the same color, size, design and scale would not lead to substantial visual impact since the project is stipulated for the same location. Moreover, other visual elements characterizing the bridge such as, change in landscape would not change as a result of the renovation. The only additional feature to the bridge would be the security cameras and lighting but that would not affect the scenery but enhance it as well as improve the security of the area. Thus there would be no significant impacts on the visual resources and crucial views within the visual settings.  

 

Root Cause Analysis

The root cause analysis, RCA is used in the health care profession to find flaws and opportunities for improvement in the nursing environment. It is a structured analysis method for serious adverse health care events. Moreover, by conducting a RCA, health care practitioners determine the underlying problems that increase the likelihood of errors with avoidance of focus on individuals’ mistakes. A systems approach is used to detect and eliminate active and latent errors to prevent future harm. As a result, RCAs follow a pre-specified protocol starting with collection of data, record reviewing, and participant interviews to reconstruct the event in question (Franklin, Shebl & Barber, 2012).

Health care workers are obligated to protect their clients through full understanding of nursing-sensitive indicators for aversion of any possible cases of hospital-associated injury or death. If a patient is in more danger than they arrived at the hospital, then a RCA is useful to determine the way forward. The male patient presented to the emergency department and the vital signs recorded is noted to be in severe pain of 10/10. On assessment, it is revealed that the patient is in moderate distress, and the left leg seems shortened with calf edema, ecchymosis and has a limited range of motion.

After assessment by the Registered nurse, diazepam 5 mg is recommended and seems to take no effect five minutes later after which the RN is instructed to administer hydromorphone 2 mg IVP which still does not show any effect. Hydromorphone 2 mg IVP and additional diazepam 5 mg are further given to the patient for sedation purposes. After sedation, the left hip is reduced successfully after which the patient is left with no supplemental oxygen given. He is thereafter placed on blood pressure monitor as the RN goes to attend to another patient. After several minutes the machine beeps as an indication that the patient’s pressure is decreasing, and as such, the reading is 58/30 while the oxygen saturation reads at 79 percent. On examination, the RN finds that the patient is short of breath and has no palpable pulse. This prompts the RN to place the patient in a ventilator.

On performing the RCA, it is established that the RN should have placed the patient in supplement oxygen after the surgery. The RN should be held culpable for this incident even though she had no past record of negligence. Post-operative supplemental oxygen aids in preventing post-operative wound infection, vomiting and nausea. Moreover, the patient was administered with too much hydromorphone 2 mg IVP and diazepam 5 mg. Administration of such drugs causes a patient problems, especially because they come into contact with other tissues before they can be changed by the liver; hence it becomes impossible for the patient to get sedated.

Further, more problems were also caused by the additional oxycodone the patient had taken for back pain. Conversely, as older adults advance in age, they undergo numerous physical changes, for instance, diminishing effectiveness in absorbing and distributing medicine within their bodies as a result of a decrease in plasma proteins. Other activities that change include altered biotransformation and metabolism of chemicals, such as drugs and decreasing body water so the drugs become more saturated to life threatening levels (Franklin et al., 2012).

Another cause for the event would be workplace problems, such as rush to attend to other patients, for instance, the 43-year old female who was complaining of a throbbing headache and the 8-year old boy presented with appendicitis. This would have been the case for divided attention in giving the 68-year old patient the much needed care. The nurses seem to have been fatigued by the amount of work in the rural hospital.

Moreover, the cause for the pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest can be attributed to potentially preventable fluid overload in the bloodstreams and body of the patient. Upon investigation it is found that this was caused by excess administration of hydromorphone IV coupled with the excessive intake of oxycodone and atorvastatin (Motov, 2012). The lack of monitoring and evaluation of significance of progressive weight and lack of output monitoring in the patient’s risks for fluid retention was another cause. A change in practice in the hospital would be necessary to mitigate the possibility of recurrence of such an event by instituting continuous quality improvement measures in the various multidisciplinary processes to better meet the clients’ needs (Riehle, Bergeron & Hyrkäs, 2008).

Low standard performance occurs as a result of a system failure hence real change can only be attained by altering the system, for instance, hospital leadership, culture and constitution of a strong medical team. Training should be done on a continual basis and care processes performed especially on patients who are on medication for other serious conditions. Further, an ambitious target for improving health care outcomes and preventing complications needs to be set up (Myers, 2011).

The process for conducting a failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA involves three main stages whereby the appropriate actions to be taken are defined and undertaken by a committee appointed by the doctor in charge of the hospital. Prior to commencement of the process, a pre-work is done to ascertain the robustness and history of the subject matter for better analysis. The robustness analysis is obtained from interface matrices, boundary and parameter diagrams. Nevertheless, failures may occur during any phase in the drug delivery process from prescription to administration. Mistakes may happen during the ordering process and shared interfaces with other parts and systems since health care practitioners tend to focus on what they can control directly (Franklin et al., 2012).

In the commencement of the process, a description of the system and its function are done. Moreover, a clear understanding simplifies further analysis as the doctor is able to realize which system uses are attractive and which are not. Thereafter, the health care practitioner considers both the intentional and unintentional uses that may bring about hostility. A block illustration of the system is then created to give an outline of the main components or process steps and their relationship.

Further, nurses rate on a scale how severe the effects, such as pain or injury are with 1 being not severe at all and 10 being extremely severe. The doctor in this case should have ensured that the nurses attending to the patient understood and agreed to the scale before starting. Identification of the causes of the failure mode or effect would follow with ranking of the effects in the occurrence column. By noting how likely the cause would occur, a scale of 1 would mean highly unlikely while 10 would be likely to occur all the time (Raheja, 2011).

Identification of the controls to detect the issue and its rank according to effectiveness in the detection column would follow. Therefore, 1 would mean excellent controls while 10 would show no controls. Lastly, the doctor would multiply the severity, occurrence, and detection numbers and record the subsequent value risk priority number. This number is thus used in the identification of the incidence, which the team must focus on at first.

The health care practitioners are obligated to assess the conditions that may increase the likelihood of cautions and contraindications after drug intake, for example, any known allergies to the drugs. Moreover, any impaired kidney or liver function, lactation, or cases of pregnancy, such as potential unfavorable effects on fetus or unborn baby and other issues like cardiovascular dysfunction induced by a fall in blood pressure should be subject to analysis (Myers, 2011). Moreover, the baseline status should be analyzed prior to therapy commencement to determine any potential adverse effects, such as body temperature, weight, skin color changes, pulse rate, blood pressure, perfusion, renal and liver function, and blood glucose levels.

Fall-induced injuries among older persons are alarming for two reasons; the incidence of these injuries is increasing, and the population at risk is constantly expanding and is expected to grow more rapidly in the future. Health care practitioners should thus monitor patients at either end of the spectrum, whether old or young, for proper metabolism of drugs like hydromorphone IV to determine the amount a patient can intake prior to sedation rather than continual administration of sedatives to lethal levels (Motov, 2012). If it is not yet the desired amount, there may be a need for dosage adjustment but after the health history of the patient is determined and vital signs taken to ascertaining the amount to be administered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology

Cross-cultural psychology has been used in the comprehension of people and development by increasing the generality of their exposures and experiences hence providing a broader base of reporting the effects of experiences on development. However, there have been difficulties in isolation of independent variables and ambiguities in interpreting the dependent variables. Further, cross-cultural psychology has contributed in the processes of examining the relations between culturally organized experience and development (Berry, 2011).

The case study looks into the differences between the western and the oriental culture, particularly the Chinese culture with regard to their effectiveness and appropriateness in communication during conflict. In the study, Brew, Tan, Booth and Malik (2011) conducted a pilot study with 30 employees in Singapore to determine communication competence through appraisals from western expatriates and host-nationals. A quasi-experimental study was also conducted on 128 Australians and 108 Chinese University students, whereby the Australians were found to discriminate between four conflict styles with effectiveness than appropriateness with the converse being true for the Chinese.

Brew et al., (2011) note that both effectiveness and appropriateness projected relationship outcomes post-conflict for the two groups. The trend of effectiveness judgment on the four conflict styles related to the predictions on the relationships role in improving post-conflict for the Australian group. On the same group appropriateness did not show any relationship in improving post-conflict but it did show the predictions for status quo maintenance level. The authors further assert that people from different cultures hold varying implicit cognitive theories about competent and incompetent communication in interpersonal conflict.

Cross-cultural psychology is the empirical study of members of different culture groups who have had varying experiences that show predictable and significant behavioral differences. The groups mostly studied in this form of psychology speak different languages and are governed by different political units. Conversely, cultural psychology is the comparative study of the culture’s role in shaping people mentally and culture’s relationship with psyche.

As part of cultural psychology, people hold the belief that communication patterns and uses are shared fundamentals across all cultures, which may not be true in some cultures. This does not hold true to the Chinese culture where communication is a means of relationship and harmony enhancement rather than conveyance of information as is in the western culture. This gives an evidence that communication styles differ greatly across cultures as the Chinese culture is restrained while the western one is outspoken. The communication styles are however, complementary to the different conflict styles, for instance avoidance of conflict and in China and the confrontational approach used in the western culture thus affirming cross-cultural psychology.

Conflict management and communication styles are focused on behavior thus people in different cultures hold differing implicit theories of communication that determine their interaction behaviors. The behavioral cognitive processes impact heavily on the outcome and interpersonal interactions between people of the western and oriental cultures (Karremans et al., 2011). For instance, a person is prone to greater conflict responsibility if negative evaluation is done on their conflict handling style.

Cultural psychology uses sociological and anthropological theories of culture to note the cultural-historical content of culture and psychological factors in the society. These information forms the basis for cross-cultural psychology to measure variables through symbiotic relationship with cultural psychology for the instruments to attain psychological validity (Froese, Peltokorpi & Ko, 2012). Conversely, cross-cultural psychology clarifies and tests issues related to culture and psychology using standardized tests and measures.

Cultural psychology focuses on identifying the cultural differences specific to groups, for instance communication process during conflict, whereas cross-cultural psychology is more concerned with locating fundamental human universals and their variants across cultures. This can be seen in the quasi-experimental study done between the Australians and the Chinese students. The two, when integrated together conceptually and empirically, produce insights into the relationship between psychology and communication as well as how they are shaped by culture.  

Cross-cultural research is a comparative research involving comparisons of experimental and control group, for instance groups of Australian and Chinese students as conducted by Brew et al. however, the central focus is on the design and analysis of quasi-experiments, which form the main framework for cross-cultural research. In cross-cultural research, samples are collected and compared within different populations, which are cultures (Berry, 2011).

The sample collected depends on the objective of the research. For a descriptive study, such as the study done by Brew et al., sample representatives are used. The researcher in this case studies the relationship between variables in different cultures without interest in the absolute scores or distribution of variables. However, matched samples and functional equivalence of samples may be used in some cases (Berry, 2011). 

Qualitative methodology is used in cross-cultural research to probe intensely into the cultural and personal quality of psychological phenomena (Berry, 2011). This kind of methodology reveals how various cultural groups discriminate conflict styles with effectiveness and appropriateness. Since the objective of cross-cultural psychology is to thoroughly understand the full complexity of psychological phenomena, thus qualitative methodology may be said to be objective. This comes as a result of their being substantive rather than suggestive in their description.

Ethnicity, race and worldviews are separate yet related concepts in that they form a basis for study of culture in cross-cultural psychology. In this study the researchers found out that Australians, western expatriates and the Chinese students held varying views on conflict resolution with regard to effectiveness and appropriateness. Without these races and ethnicity, it would be difficult for the scholars to come up with clear findings on worldviews about conflict management. This is based on the finding that people from different cultures hold differing implicit theories of communication hence leading to a differing determination of their behavior.

Enculturation helps people to learn the requirements of the culture they are in thus acquiring the appropriate values and behaviors in that culture (Froese et al., 2012). This results in gaining competence in the values of that culture. From the study, the researchers found what their study groups, that is, the Chinese and westerners believe as appropriate and effective in communication during conflict. This cements the different cultures’ accepted norms and values where the study groups live. Moreover, enculturation teaches an individual the roles they are supposed to play within the society with regard to the accepted behavior within that society and lifestyle. Further, it would help people in the western cultures realize that not all communication is meant to pass knowledge or convey feelings so that to interact well with the oriental people who use communication differently, thus averting conflict (Berry, 2011).

Enhanced cultural diversity in different cultural settings requires one to show their abilities to adapt to the culturally unfamiliar environment and to learn to co-exist productively with people from the various cultural backgrounds thus showing the ability of cross-cultural psychology. The study showed that high inter-cultural sensitivity is associated with high inter-cultural communication competence, for instance interpersonal relationships with culturally different people in conflict management through communication.