Engineering wood can be sustainable when used in flooring compared to a solid piece of wood; this is because of the composition of the wood. Engineering wood is made of different types of wood such as MDF, Plywood and OSB, which are glued together in layers and are arranged in an overlapping pattern making them more sustainable and more resistant to environmental changes. Solid piece of timber cannot be sustainable in areas with high moisture content as a flooring material.
High performance concrete should be used to build the house because of the silt sand which is weak. HPC is the most appropriate because a raft foundation can be used to spread the buildings load over the week grounds. HPC through admixtures can be sustainable in environmental changes such as high humidity, rainfall, and freeze and thaw. Any type of wood cannot be sustainable in high humidity and rainfall because of its hygroscopic nature because it will shrink and swell, therefore it will deteriorate.
The effectiveness and sustainability of a construction material will be determined by the ratio of compressive/ultimate strength, embodied carbon and embodied energy. A sustainable construction material should be socially friendly, economically friendly and environmentally friendly. In choosing a construction material between concrete masonry units, concrete brick and MW clay brick in terms of sustainability, MW clay brick is the most sustainable because it produces considerably a small amount of carbon and has a low embodied energy and at the same time a high compressive strength, its ratio is the most sustainable compared to the other two.
The most important point of sustainability in civil engineering is the environmental impact of the materials. A sustainable material is one that has the less environmental impact, i.e. less pollution and conserves energy. There are other aspects that contribute to sustainability even though on a lesser magnitude, they include the social value and economic value. Materials that are that are environmentally friendly but are expensive to maintain and have a low social value cannot be said to be highly sustainable. An example of sustainability in engineering is the use of renewable energy like solar and efficient lighting in buildings; this reduces energy consumption and green gas emissions.